Politeness and Formality in Japanese – so that you know what it means to use polite/formal speech. ... youni. Desu is going to come at the end of sentences or phrases, and is of “neutral” formality, meaning it can be used in all kinds of situations and is very versatile. When it comes to J… Negative Verbs. There is one condition when using this Japanese sentence. Did you notice how I've been using "non-past" instead of "present"? You know how to pronounce “desu” now, but what about it’s meaning? ★ Because ほしい (hoshii) is an adjective and not a verb, the object of the sentence is marked by が (ga) and not を (o). Politeness shows up in the main verb (always the last in the sentence), which in this case is the copula, so in polite speech (teineigo) da is replaced with desu. All you need to do is replace the noun with another noun, and you can essentially say hundreds of thousands of different things… The cool part? You make the guess after loo… It is a cat. And in the next step, we'll add in questions and sentence ending particles. Do you remember how Yoda talks? Note that while the English "to be" can also be used to show existence (I am in my living room), Japanese has two separate verbs for this purpose: いる "iru" for animate objects (animals, people, robots) and ある "aru" for inanimate objects. “Desu” means “it is” Anyways, I think the best way to learn it is to actually see it in action. The basic sentence structure is "someone) wa (something) ga hoshii desu." As a root verb, desu is non-past ("present") tense and affirmative ("positive"). A copula is essentially a verb meaning "to be". Shi (indefinite base of ‘suru’) + tai desu = Shi tai desu. Let’s start by breaking down the polite and casual forms: Forms of "be" English include "is", "am", "are", "was", "were", "been", and "being". Using 'だ' is kind of difficult because it is not so polite. Look at the sentences above, specifically the Yoda one: “Pen, it is.” There’s the “it is” part! Japanese nouns do not inflect to show that they are plural, and do not take articles (a/an/the). I’ll tell you a secret, though. The Japanese copula also has several forms, the most important of which are the plain form だ "da" and the polite form です "desu". Note: I realize this sounds like a certain Japanese car manufacturer, but that Honda (本田） comes from the name of the company's founder. when you understand the above examples) you can move on. However, in Japanese, the word for want (ほしい – hoshii) is an adjective. So if you end a sentence in a verb, no matter how it is conjugated (formally or informally), you will not need “desu.” You can end a sentence with “taberu” or “tabemasu” without worrying about adding desu. This is specified with the topic marker "wa", and in this case of this sentence structure, the topic is generally also the subject. To change to volitional-form, simply replace る (ru) with よう (you) and you will get the volitional-form of the verb. Watashi wa nihongo o benkyō shitaidesu – I would like to study Japanese – do the study. 1. While the above sentence pattern is used in writing, it's changed to Plain form んです (Plain form n desu) when it's used in conversation because it's easier to pronounce. For example, this Japanese verb たべる (taberu) is a group 2 verb. Firstly, if you are feeling “genki” you can say, “げんきです” which simply means, “yeah, I’m fine”. Here are some sample sentences: Watashi wa kuruma ga hoshii desu. You 2. TextFugu © Tofugu LLC. そうです (sou desu) in 耳の"そう" (mimi no "sou") is used to convey the message that you obtained from another information source, either you have heard from someone or you have read it somewhere. (when you wish for something, end the sentence with 'youni') (4). Also, 'だ' is used when you write a research report to inform readers of facts directly. In this lesson, you'll learn about one especially important verb, desu, and how to use it as part of your first sentence structure. Meaning: (1). Doyoubi no gogo benkyou shinakutemo ii desu. You could also disagree and say 元気ではない “Genki de wa nai” which means “I’m not fine”. Grammar Guide Japanese Audio Flashcard Lessons updated 1-4-21 This Grammar Guide is intended for students of the 36 audio lessons in our Japanese Audio ... You may use desu after an i adjective. ★ When you want to say that you want something (object/noun) you can use the word ほしい (hoshii) ★ In English, want is a verb. (=Tanaka is Japanese. Now, what does “desu” mean? You only had to learn one thing, “desu.”. For our intents and purposes, we’re going to say that “desu” means “it is.”. ★ Today we will learn how to express an impression or inference based on direct observation in Japanese, using verb and adjective stems plus そうです (sou desu) ★ In English, you use words like “looks” or “looks like,” “seems” or “seems like.” ★ For example, “this cake looks delicious.” It doesn’t technically mean it is (pretty hard to translate desu, actually), but “it is” will help you learn desu and learn how it’s used, especially now that you know how Yoda talks. It is OK for you to use only 'です (desu)' at first. By the way, a topic can be dropped from a sentence if the context is already understood. Ki (indefinite base of ‘kuru’) + tai desu = ki tai desu. Each example sentence includes a Japanese hint, the romaji reading, and the English translation. To change to volitional-form, replace る (ru) with よう (you) and you will get たべよう (tabeyou). Adjectives are used in a way that looks deceptively similar to this pattern, but there is a subtle difference. That’s why “desu” is so often translated as the English verb“to be.” Adjectives get a little complicated with “desu.” Na-adjectivessuch as “kantan” ( … You'll learn how to use these verbs later on. Whereas for そうです (sou desu) in 目の"そう" (me no "sou"), it means "It looks like ~"or "It seems ~". This is because Japanese doesn't differentiate between present and future tenses. (noun + no) youni + verb 4. Formal Versus Informal . If the time frame is not specified separately, (now, soon, 3 years from now), then it must be inferred. You have to study everyday. However, you may not use da after an i adjective. It should always come after the te-form of a verb. Note that the object of the verb "to want" is marked with the particle " ga ", not " o ". But ending a sentence with a noun without “desu” will make it a fragment. Desu is going to come at the end of sentences or phrases, and is of “neutral” formality, meaning it can be used in all kinds of situations and is very versatile. You can find the detail explanation (meaning, formation) and examples of this Japanese grammar in this post. Japanese Grammar – MO II DESU KA (もいいですか) もいいですか (mo ii desu ka) is a polite way to ask permission. You can put “desu” after nouns to end sentences. Good. ). です (desu) is similar to “ is ” or “ am ” in English. To speak about your plans or intentions, you can use つもりです (tsumori desu). You don’t have to study on Saturday afternoon. https://www.learn-japanese-adventure.com/japanese-expression-you-desu.html ★ For example, the stem of the verb 食べます (tabemasu) – to eat – is 食べ (tabe). In this lesson, you'll learn about one especially important verb, desu, and how to use it as part of your first sentence structure. Everything you ever wanted to know about Japanese, fully explained, Quick Reference Sheets and Other Print Outs, The Sentence Ending Particles "Ne" and "Yo", Lesson Update: Japanese Verbs and Conjugation, Tanaka is a Japanese person. Japanese verbs also do not inflect for number (singular/plural), gender (male/female), or person (I/you/he), so as long as you want non-past tense, simply desu is the correct form to use. During a wave of anime and manga in the West in the 1990s–2000s, English-speaking users in online fan forums began writing desu at the end of their sentences to mimic of Japanese speech (e.g., I love it desu).This was seen as being more kawaii, or … You'll learn more about verb conjugation later on. You’ve learned how basic Japanese sentences work! All Rights Reserved, よ. Do you remember what we’re associating with desu (it is)? Do you remember how Yoda talks? Good. To say that something "is" something, you use the following sentence structure: [A] is the topic of the sentence, which can be any noun (person/animal/object/place/concept). samui desu 寒いです [It] is cold! At some point, the negative forms of gozaimasu were also replaced by the negative forms of arimasu. It is very similar to “Can I” or “May I” in English. Plain form no desu. There are no articles or relative pronouns that exist in Japanese grammar and pronouns that do exist are used differently. As a side note, desu is believed to be a contraction of "de gozaimasu", which is now mainly used in keigo (honorific speech). My Japanese teacher would always punctuate the end of her sentences with a very powerful です (desu). JLPT N4 Grammar: ようだ (you da) Detail explanation Example sentences Detail explanation Meaning: It seems that, it appears that, it looks like Formation: Verb-casual + ようだ いadj […] 5. Interesting I should say that... “sin” sounds like “sen” … It can be used to show identity (Max is a dog), properties (furry), state (happy), and membership in a set (one of my pets). When you’re speaking to someone who has a higher social status than you, or when you are talking with someone whom you just met and need to show politeness towards. All questions, comments, and corrections are welcome. This could be the case if the speaker is answering a question about the topic of the previous sentence, or it might simply be obvious, such as when introducing yourself or pointing to something. You also need to use a different form of –n desu when it is attached directly to a plain form of the verb in an informal situation.When the circumstances are informal, use –n da instead of –n desu, as demonstrated in the table.The sentences are written first in hiragana, which is a phonetic syllabary (or transliteration) made from simplified kanji characters. [B] is also a noun, generally an identity of some sort, whether it be the exact identity of the entity in question (like a name) or a group it belongs in (like nationality). Based off that, can you guess what “pen desu” means? If you’ve been listening (or reading) Japanese for a day or 10 years, you’ve likely stumbled across the mysterious word です (desu) at the end of many sentences. Let's … Click the below red button to toggle off and and on all of the hints, and you can click on the buttons individually to show only the ones you want to see. Plain form のです. You may find a lot of textbooks referring to desu as the “ copula “. Japanese has a wide variety of phrases that show one sentence relates to the last. Note: For な-adj/Noun → (～ だ) な. Usage: This is used to express obligation, the need to do something important. You got it, “It is a pen.” Of course, with this knowledge, you can say anything, really. Japanese doesn't really have a word for "it", but if the topic was stated it would probably be kore "this". Desu became known to Western audiences via Japanese anime and manga, a form of Japanese cartoon animation and comics. You got it, it means “it is!” Yoda-speak is a lot like basic Japanese grammar, so all you have to do is take the “it is” part in the Yoda sentence and replace it with “desu.” Let’s take a look. Good question! It is a bus. Today, we introduce to you the JLPT N4 Grammar: ようだ (you da). In Japanese, the system of nouns can also function as adverbs and adjectives leading to errors when trying to determine which part of speech it is, especially when you are translating directly into English. “Deshita” is only used for past affirmative tense. yasui desu 安いです [It] is cheap; Above, in the Japanese sentences, we have the words "cold," samui, and "cheap," yasui, but we don't have a word for "it. You remember, right? 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